MOORHEAD - Watermelon juice drips down sticky fingers and parents wrangle their children out of the streets as shower mists of mosquito spray coat every inch of exposed skin. Blankets are spread out as dusk begins to creep over the fields, streets and lakes.

Pop. Boom. Crackle, crackle. Whisssstle. Hisssss.

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The pinnacle moment of the holiday celebration is almost here. Nothing screams summer like the sights and sounds of our nation's birthday celebration on Wednesday, July 4. That's right, I'm talking fireworks.

These colorful fireballs have dazzled for thousands of years. Originally created in ninth century China to ward off evil spirits, Americans decided to join the party before America was a country.

Founding father and second president John Adams wrote in a July 3, 1776, letter to his wife that the occasion (signing the Declaration of Independence) should be commemorated with "illuminations from one end of this continent to the other from this time forward forever more."

Fireworks were officially used for the first time as a commemoration of Independence Day on July 4, 1777, and have been used here ever since. But what goes into creating the spectacular displays that are a highlight of the summer?

Creating the spark

Building a firework begins with something more suited for Halloween than for the Fourth of July: a skeleton. Well, if the firework you're setting off is in Minnesota, that is.

Ground display shapes are created by building a skeleton of the desired shape, followed by wiring the skeleton with colored pyrotechnics. But Minnesota's laws against personal use of consumer-grade fireworks put a dampener on the party, unless you want thousands of people to gather around a few sparklers.

The big, commercial fireworks, like the ones used in Moorhead's annual "5656 Ooh & Aah" celebration, are made just a little bit differently.

Dan Creagan, media coordinator for Pyrotechnics Guild International with more than 15 years of experience building and shooting fireworks, says it all starts with the chemicals.

"The chemistry of fireworks has improved dramatically since the 1900s," Creagan says. "The availability of different chemicals to produce colors has created the ability to display almost anything in the air."

All fireworks need two things to work: a chemical that is rich in oxygen and fuel.

Nearly the entire range of colors is produced with some version of chemical salts made from a metal and one or more other ingredient. The main colors of fireworks are blue (copper chloride), yellow (sodium nitrate), green (barium chloride), red (strontium carbonate) and white (titanium), and can be combined with one another to create an almost infinite number of shades.

Once the ingredients are combined, they are pressed into a cylindrical mold to get ready to dazzle - after being burned at several thousand degrees.

Aerial shells can be made to represent basic shapes. Hearts, smiley faces, rings and even acronyms can be created with different star colors represented to make the light show we all know. Like any projectile, the mass of the stars determines how high in the sky they will go before they explode.


There is a lot that goes into creating the spectacular shows we come to expect each Fourth, and most of it doesn't originate in the home of the brave.

"Since about 1980, the world's commercial fireworks production has slowly migrated to China," Creagan says. "Today, there are only a few companies in the United States that make fireworks commercially and those companies are extremely specialized."

Creagan says most big companies have contracts with Chinese companies to make custom fireworks and ship them here.

"The visualization and implementation of the fireworks are usually determined here, but made there," Creagan says.

For the big displays on the holiday, a company may create unique displays in advance and order the product in from China. Planning may start as early as two years in advance, almost always beginning at least several months prior to the event. This means the show you watch on Wednesday could have been in the works since last year's fireworks show.

A large fireworks display is like a stage production, complete with choreographers, writers, scripts, directors, stagehands, technicians, production heads, assistants and sponsors. The names for these roles can differ, but in every case, a big fireworks event is an entertainment production that requires significant planning and resources.

"Basic planning for one of our shows starts about two to three years out with detailed planning and work commencing about eight months before the show," Creagan says. "Like all stage plays, things happen - sometimes on the very night of the production - so it can be hectic and very exciting."

While you file into the bleachers at Scheels Field, wrapped in a blanket with a layer of bug spray on your arms and legs, remember the work that went into the half-hour display of fiery brilliance.

5656 Ooh & Aah

The Fourth of July is not overlooked in Moorhead. Fireworks will once again light up the night sky on Wednesday like they have on the holiday the past 45 years.

Sheri Larson, the Moorhead Business Association's interim executive director, says she's most excited for the crowd.

"The families, the kids, the excitement, the oohs," Larson says. "We are called the Moorhead Proud 5656 Ooh & Aah for a reason. This year is going to be bigger than last year, too, because it's the 45th year."

The fireworks show will begin at 10:30 p.m., through gates at Scheels Field on the Minnesota State University Moorhead campus will open at 8 p.m. Wednesday. For more information about the free event, visit